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Chinese Tile Game

Chinese Tile Game Solitaire tile matching puzzle

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Chinese Tile Game

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Chinese Tile Game Video

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Chinese Tile Game - Lim Chinese Riichi Mahjong Set 144 Tiles Size: XXL Mahjongg, Mah-Jongg, Mah Jongg Set, Majiang

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Have fun matching the tiles! How to Play: Using your computer mouse, left click on two tiles that you think match for them to disappear.

Note, you can only match tiles that have the left or right side unblocked and nothing on top of them. Tip: You should open the most important tiles first the top and the left and right sides in order to have as many tiles unblocked as possible.

Play Mahjong online free with no download: Classic Chinese tile game, Mahjong Solitaire game matching tiles. Play strategy board games online, logic thinking games, brain teaser games, fun educational problem solving puzzles for children, teens, adults.

Rating : 8. To play this Flash-based online game, you need to activate Adobe's Flash Player on your current web browser. Mahjong players also like to play these games on Learn4Good:.

Forty Thieves. Tribal Hop. Star Defense. There are fairly standard rules about how a piece is drawn, how a piece is robbed from another player, the use of simples numbered tiles and Honors winds and dragons , the kinds of melds allowed, how to deal the tiles and the order of play.

Despite these similarities, there are many regional variations to the rules including rather different scoring systems, criteria for legal winning hands, and even private table rules which distinguish some variations as notably different styles of mahjong.

It is said that the clacking of tiles during shuffling resembles the chattering of sparrows. It has also been suggested that the name came from an evolution of an earlier card game called Madiao which mahjong tiles were adapted from.

There are many highly varied versions of mahjong both in rules and tiles used. For these reasons Hong Kong mahjong is a suitable variation for the introduction of game rules and play and is the focus of this article.

Old Hong Kong Mahjong is played with a standard set of Mahjong tiles though cards may be used. Sets often include counters to keep score , dice to decide how to deal , and a marker to show who the dealer is and which round is being played.

Some sets include racks to hold the tiles, especially if they are larger or smaller than standard tiles or have an odd shape.

Mahjong sets originating from the United States, Japan or Southeast Asia will likely have extra tiles or specialized markings. There are 3 suits of simples and in each suit the tiles are numbered from 1 to 9.

The suits are bamboos, dots, and characters. There are 4 identical copies of each simples tile totaling simples tiles.

The bamboo suit is also known as "sticks", "strings" or "bams" suit; the first tile usually has a bird traditionally, a peacock or sparrow instead of a single bamboo.

The dots suit is also known as the "wheels", "circles", "coins", "stones", "marbles" or "balls" suit. The characters suit is also known as the "myriads", "cracks" or "numbers" suit since the top characters are numbers in the Chinese orthography, and the bottom characters in traditional Chinese characters are the Chinese orthography of "ten thousand".

There are two different sets of Honors tiles: Winds and Dragons. In Mahjong, East not North is the beginning. The Dragons are Red, Green, and White.

These tiles have no numerical sequence like the simples for example the bamboo pieces number 1 to 9.

Like the simples, there are four identical copies of each Honors tile, for a total of 28 Honors tiles. There are two sets of Bonus tiles: Flowers and Seasons.

The flower and season tiles play a unique role in the mechanics of the game. When drawn, the Bonus tile is not added into a player's hand but are instead set aside and kept near the player's other tiles for scoring purposes should they win the hand, and an extra tile is drawn in replacement of the Bonus tile.

In addition, unlike the Simple and Honors tiles, there is only a single tile of each Bonus tile, so there are a total of four flower and four season tiles in the set.

The tiles have a different artistic rendering of a specific type of flower or season. It is not necessary to know the names or the Chinese characters of each bonus tile, only the number, as this is associated with a specific direction, and the player receives bonus points when the Bonus tile matches the seat direction.

There is no relation between the bonus tile "bamboo" flower and the bamboo suit of simple tiles ex. In traditional Chinese culture, the Four Gentlemen are the plum winter , orchid spring , bamboo summer , and chrysanthemum autumn which are regarded as the representative plants of those seasons, but people regard it as plum blossom spring , orchid summer , chrysanthemum autumn and bamboo winter now.

The dealer is chosen by various means. For example, each player throws dice with the highest count taking the dealer position, second-highest taking south etc.

Or one player may place one tile of each wind face down and shuffle them. Each player randomly select one of these tiles and these tiles dictate their wind position.

Each player sits down at their respective position called the wind position at the table in positions of an inverted compass: East is dealer, the right of the dealer is South, across is West, and the left is North.

The order of play is traditionally counter-clockwise. A match consists of four rounds, each representing a "prevailing wind," starting with East.

Once the first round is completed, a second round begins with South as the prevailing wind, and so on. Wind position is significant in that it affects the scoring of the game.

A Mahjong set with Winds in play will usually include a separate prevailing wind marker typically a die marked with the Wind characters in a holder.

In each round at least four hands are played, with each player taking the position of dealer. In the first hand of each round, Player 1 winner of the dice toss is East and therefore dealer.

In the second hand, Player 2 takes the East position, shifting the seat winds amongst the players counterclockwise though players do not physically move their chairs.

This continues until all four players have been East dealer. A marker is used to mark which player is East and often the round number.

In sets with racks, a rack may be marked differently to denote the dealer. Whenever a player in the East position dealer wins a hand, or if there is no winner a draw or "goulash hand" , an extra hand is played with the same seating positions and prevailing wind as in the previous hand.

This means that a match may potentially have no limit to the number of hands played though some players will set a limit of three consecutive hands allowed with the same seat positions and prevailing wind.

All tiles are placed face down on the table and are shuffled. By convention all players should participate in shuffling using both hands moving the pieces around the table rigorously and loudly for a lengthy period.

Tiles may get flipped up during this process and players should flip them facing down as soon as possible to avoid identifying the location of the revealed tiles.

Each player then stacks a row of 18 tiles, two tiles high in front of them for a total of 36 tiles. Players then push each side of their stack together to form a square wall.

Regular players usually place their stacks in a slightly diagonal position about 20 to 30 degrees anti-clockwise ; the right end of their stack is pushed slightly further in to the centre of the table to meet almost the middle of the stack of the player on the right.

This creates a smaller square wall the length of about half of each stack, with walls extended away from each corner of the square.

The diagonally positioned stacks and a smaller square creates a bigger space for players' tiles and also makes an ergonomic position for drawing tiles from the stack.

The dealer throws three dice in the square wall and sums up the total. Counting anti-clockwise so that the dealer is 1 or 5, 9, 13, 17 , so that south player to the right is 2 or 6, 10, 14, 18 , etc.

Some house rules may use only two dice but have double throws to increase randomness. In the case of double throws, the player of the chosen wall makes the second throw.

Using the same total on the dice or the total of the two throws , the player whose wall is chosen then counts the stacks of tiles from right to left.

For double throws, the count may extend to the left side player's stack. This determines the location where the 'deck' of tiles is cut. Starting from the left of the stacks counted, the dealer draws four tiles for himself, and players in anti-clockwise order draw blocks of four tiles until all players have 12 tiles, so that the stacks decrease clockwise.

Each player then draws one last tile to make a tile hand. Dealing does not have to be strictly this way and may be done quite differently based on house rules.

Tiles may flip over when being dealt and players should agree in advance on how to deal with the problem. Each player now sets aside any Flowers or Seasons they may have drawn and takes turns to draw replacement piece s from the wall in the anti-clockwise direction.

If a player gets any Flowers or Seasons tiles in the replacement draw, the players must wait for the next turn to draw replacement tiles. The dealer draws a piece from the wall in clockwise direction, adding it to their hand.

Typically, this draw is performed during the initial deal to speed up play. If this does not complete a legal hand, the dealer then discards a piece throwing it into the middle of the wall with no particular order in mind.

Each player in turn, in counterclockwise direction, draws a tile from the wall; as long as the tile drawn is not one of the Bonus tiles, the player proceeds to discard a tile either the tile just drawn, or a tile in the hand to maintain a hand of The discarded tile is thrown into the centre and, if desired, the player announces out loud what the piece is.

The other players have an opportunity to seize the discarded tile; if no one takes it, the turn continues to the next player. Play continues this way until one player has a legal winning hand and calls out "Mahjong" while revealing their hand.

During play, each player's hand should always be 13 tiles meaning in each turn a tile must be picked up and another discarded.

The count of 13 tiles do not include any Bonus tiles Flowers and Seasons , which are set to the side, nor does it include the fourth added piece of a Kong.

If a player is seen to have fewer or more than 13 tiles in their hand outside of their turn they are penalised. A winning hand consists of 14 tiles.

Since players always have 13 tiles in their hand during play, they must win by either drawing a piece from the wall that completes a tile hand "winning from the wall" or claiming a discard from another player which completes a tile hand "winning by discard".

The winning hand is made of four melds a specific pattern of three pieces and the eyes a pair of identical pieces. The exceptions to this rule are the special hands listed below.

Most players play with a table minimum, meaning a winning hand must score a minimum number of points which can be seen in the scoring section.

In Hong Kong Mahjong the most common point set is three but can be higher or lower depending on house rules. Melds are groups of tiles within the player's hand, consisting of either a Pong three identical tiles , a Kong four identical tiles , a Chow three Simple tiles all of the same suit, in numerical sequence , or Eyes two identical tiles needed in a winning hand.

Melds may be formed by drawing a tile from the wall, or by seizing another player's discard. There are rules governing which player has priority for a discard, and whether the meld should be exposed displayed to all players or remain concealed, depending on the manner in which the meld is formed.

You may form a Pong with any Simple or Honors tile. Bonus tiles Flowers or Seasons cannot be used to form a Pong because they are set aside and there are not three identical bonus tiles in the set.

The tiles must be identical you cannot mix suits. A Pong may either be concealed formed by drawing tiles or exposed formed by seizing another player's discard.

Consider a Kong the same as a Pong with an additional tile to make a complete set of four. There are three ways to form a Kong.

Whenever a Kong is formed, that player must draw an extra tile from the end of the wall and then discard a tile. The fourth piece of a Kong is not considered as one of the 13 tiles a player must always have in their hand.

Kongs are worth collecting to score more points and deprive opponents of the opportunity to obtain specific tiles.

The meld must be in absolute numerical sequence and all in the same suit. Players cannot skip numbers or meld from the 8 or 9 to 1 or 2.

Honors tiles cannot be used to make Chows because they have no numerical value, and Bonus tiles Flowers and Seasons also cannot be used to make a Chow.

A player can steal a discard to form a Chow only from the player whose turn was immediately before theirs; however, a player forming a Chow from a seized piece has the lowest priority for that tile.

Any other player who needs that tile to make a Pong, make a Kong, or to win may seize that piece instead. Like the Pong, the Chow is either concealed formed by drawing tiles or exposed formed by seizing the prior player's discard.

Whenever a player draws a flower or season, it is announced and then placed to the side it is not considered a part of the tile hand, but in the event that player wins, he may earn bonus points for them and the last tile of the wall is drawn as a replacement tile so that the player has the 14 pieces needed before their discard.

This may happen successively in a player's turn. When a player discards a tile, other players may steal the tile to complete a meld. Stealing tiles has both advantages quickly forming a winning hand and scoring extra points and disadvantages being forced to reveal part of one's hand to other players and not being able to change the meld once declared.

When a meld Pong , Kong, or Chow is declared through a discard, the player must state the type of meld to be declared and expose the meld by placing the three or four tiles face up.

The player must then discard a tile, and play continues to the right. If the player who melds a discard is not directly after the discarder in order of play , one or two players will essentially miss their turn as play continues anti-clockwise from the player who declared the meld.

If multiple players call for a discarded tile, priority for the discard depends on the declared action of the player stealing the discard.

The act of winning a hand interrupts play to assess the validity of the hand won. Upon confirmation, the player is awarded the hand's value per the specific game's rule.

If at any point in the game a player can use another player's discard to complete a legal hand and with the agreed minimum points , they declare a win and reveal their winning hand.

This ends the hand, and scoring commences. If more than one player can use a discard to win the hand, multiple ways can handle the situation based on agreed table rules: Either the players count the points they would win with the discard and the winner is the one with the higher score, the winner is simply the player closest to the discarder in order of turn, or multiple players may be granted the win simultaneously.

Alternatively, a player may also win by drawing a tile that completes a legal hand. This is called "winning from the wall". In Hong Kong mahjong, winning from the wall doubles the number of base points each loser must pay.

Technically, the declaration for winning a hand may be done at anytime. However, the player must have a complete and legal hand. Otherwise, the win declaration is penalized.

The penalty depends on table rules. The player may forfeit points to the other players. Another potential penalty is the player who called out the false mahjong must play the rest of the hand with their tiles face up on the table so other players can see them open hand.

Some methods apply the penalty at the end of the entire game. Again, the table rules dictate the enforcement of the penalty.

A rarely occurring and high-scoring feature of Hong Kong Mahjong is a move called robbing the Kong. If a player declares a Kong either by melding it or adding a fourth piece to a Pong to form a Kong or declaring a concealed Kong but another player can use that piece to complete a hand, the completing player takes priority to go Mahjong win the hand and may steal that piece from the player who intended to declare the Kong.

Below are two examples of winning hands. A winning hand must consist of four melds Pongs, Kongs, or Chows and a pair eyes and must also score the agreed table minimum.

Hand formed with four Pongs and the eyes pair of East wind. Only bamboo is used no other simples , scoring extra points clean hand.

A high-scoring hand formed using only circles, known as a pure hand. Hand is made of Chows, Pongs and the eyes of circles.

Most players include table variations in their games, of which some non-standard are included. The hands of seven different pairs and 13 orphans are examples which do not have four melds and the eyes.

They are described in more detail below. If the dealer wins the hand, he will remain the dealer and an extra hand is played in addition to the minimum 16 hands in a match.

An extra hand is also played if there is no winner by the time all the tiles in the wall have been drawn. When there is no winner it is known as a "goulash hand".

Depending on table rules, the winner of the next game may take an agreed number of points from each player, carrying over the points from the non-winning hand to the winning one.

If there are two or three goulash hands in a row then the winner would collect a considerable number of points from each player on top of their scoring hand.

Because extra hands may be played every time a dealer wins or if there is a goulash hand, a match of 16 hands can easily become a match of 20 or even much more.

As table rules add a large amount of flexibility for players, they can choose to disregard the rule of extra hands and pass on the dealership regardless of who wins or if it results in a goulash hand.

This puts a maximum estimated limit on the game duration and provides some amount of predictability. Players may agree on table rules if the pace of the game is brisk or leisurely.

For brisk games players may agree that a couple seconds after a discard are allowed for a "window of opportunity" before the next player picks up from the wall.

Usually it is agreed once the next player has waited the duration of the "window of opportunity" and draws a tile from the wall, the previous discard is lost and cannot be claimed.

Old Hong Kong scoring is relatively simple. There is only one winner or if there is a draw the hand is replayed. The winner must have a legal hand that meets the minimum faan points agreed to in advance not including any bonus points.

Only the winner scores, the other players pay the winner various sums. After each hand ends, the winner counts all of his or her faan points.

A concealed meld is one that contains no tiles stolen from another players discard. A concealed hand is one made up of only concealed melds.

Many variations distinguish between a concealed hand winning from the wall and a semi concealed hand the last tile is a stolen discard.

In most mahjong variations having a concealed hand can be valuable in scoring. Concealed hands only the case with a few limit hands or half-limit hands thirteen orphans, heavenly gates, four concealed pongs as well as a complete hand seven pairs and over several melds three concealed pongs.

A winning hand must include an agreed minimum amount of faan value often 3. Some examples of scoring include:. The losers pay the winning player points based on several criteria and depending on whether the game is for fun or for money.

How points are reckoned is agreed by players beforehand. For example, they can keep a tally, exchange chips or pay one another with money. The faan value of a hand is converted into base points which are then used to calculate the points the losers pay the winner.

The table is progressive, doubling the number of base points when reaching a certain faan point target. This table is based on play where 3 faan is the minimum needed in order to win with a legal hand.

If a player has 3 faan then his hand is worth one base point. A winning hand with 9 faan is worth four base points. Losing players must give the winning player the value of these base points.

The following special cases result in doubled base points:. If two of these criteria apply to any player, he must double and then redouble the points owed to the winner.

Hong Kong Mahjong is essentially a payment system of doubling and redoubling where winning from the wall adds great value to the final payment and where the dealer is highly rewarded or penalised if they win or lose.

In Hong Kong Mahjong there are a series of "limit hands". These are exceptional hands, difficult to obtain and are very valuable in point scoring.

As many table rules put a limit on the number of points a winners hand can score, full limit hands score that maximum. Table rules dictate if these rare and special hands are allowed, which ones, and the limit for scoring.

A common scoring limit is 64 points, which is the highest base points doubled twice. A winner receives the scoring limit from each player without any doubling.

Some limit hands by necessity must be completely concealed not discards used or semi-concealed the only discard used is the one needed to go mahjong.

This includes the 13 orphans, 4 concealed pongs, heavenly hand and earthly hand. It is usually expected that the heavenly gates hand be concealed or semi-concealed.

As for the dragon limit hands and the great winds, table rules dictate if the hand must be concealed or not.

Some table rules claim that a semi-concealed hand winning from a discard scores a half-limit. Some groups also play with the "great Flowers" rule.

If a player picks up all four Flowers and all four Seasons during their hand, they instantly win the hand and receive the maximum points from all of the players.

This is exceptionally rare. Variations may have far more complicated scoring systems, add or remove tiles, and include far more scoring elements and limit hands.

In many places, players often observe one version and are either unaware of other variations or claim that different versions are incorrect.

In mainland China alone, there are over thirty variants. Three-player Mahjong or 3- ka is a simplified three-person Mahjong that involves hands of 13 tiles with a total of 84 tiles on the table and may use jokers depending on the variation.

Any rule set can be adapted for three players; however, this is far more common and accepted in Japan, Korea, Malaysia and the Philippines.

It usually eliminates one suit entirely, or tiles 2—8 in one suit leaving only the terminals. It needs fewer people to start a game and the turnaround time of a game is short—hence, it is considered a fast game.

In some versions there is a jackpot for winning in which whoever accumulates a point of 10 is considered to hit the jackpot or whoever scores three hidden hands first.

The Malaysian and Korean versions drop one wind and may include a seat dragon. Mahjong tables are square and small enough to be within arm's length of all equipment.

The edges are raised to prevent tiles from sliding off and the surface is covered in felt to limit wear on the tiles.

Automatic dealing tables, often used for high stakes playing and tournaments, are able to shuffle tiles, build walls, and randomize dice.

It is an elaborate device built into a table which uses two alternating sets of tiles. It prepares one wall while the players play one hand.

After the hand is finished the tiles are dropped into the table and a new wall raises upwards. In theory the table should avoid cheating by stacking the deck and or using loaded dice.

There are variations that feature specific use of tiles. Some three-player versions remove the North Wind and one Chinese provincial version has no Honors.

Korean Mahjong removes the bamboo suit or at least its numbers 2—8 so that terminals can be used. Japanese Mahjong rarely uses Flowers or Seasons.

Some mahjong variants accept wildcard tiles. The wildcard tiles are decided at the beginning of the game by choosing one random tile.

The wild card could be the immediately following tile on the wall, after distributing tiles to all players, or it could also be separately decided by a dice throw.

Wildcard tiles can't be discarded and can only replace tiles in Chows. Wildcard tiles cannot replace tiles in Pongs and Kongs. For example, if a character 4 is chosen, then character 4 and the next sequential tile, character 5, can be used as wild cards in this round.

When the wildcard indicator is chosen and exposed, only 3 tiles remain of the same denomination, so the next tile in the suit will also be used as a wildcard, adding to 7 wildcard tiles for 4 players.

Also, if a tile numbered 9 is the indicator, the suits circle back to 1, after 9. Thus, the number 9 and 1 are wild cards.

A feature of several variations of Mahjong, most notably in American mahjong, is the notion of some number of Joker tiles.

They may be used as a wild card: a substitute for any tile in a hand, or, in some variations, only tiles in melds.

Another variation is that the Joker tile may not be used for melding. Depending on the variation, a player may replace a Joker tile that is part of an exposed meld belonging to any player with the tile it represents.

Rules governing discarding Joker tiles also exist; some variations permit the Joker tile to take on the identity of any tile, and others only permit the Joker tile to take on the identity of the previously discarded tile or the absence of a tile, if it is the first discard.

Joker tiles may or may not affect scoring, depending on the variation. Some special hands may require the use of Joker tiles for example, to represent a "fifth tile" of a certain suited or honor tile.

Japanese rule sets discourage the use of Flowers and Seasons. In Singapore and Malaysia an extra set of bonus tiles of four animals are used. The rule set includes a unique function in that players who get two specific animals get a one-time immediate payout from all players.

In Taiwanese Mahjong, getting all eight Flowers and Seasons constitutes an automatic win of the hand and specific payout from all players.

Four of the flower tiles represent the four noble plants of Confucian reckoning:. These animal tiles are used in Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and local variations.

They represent the cat , mouse , rooster and centipede. Like flower tiles, they also function as bonus tiles. However, as they have no corresponding seat position, any player who draws one of these gets a bonus point.

All tiles are placed face down and shuffled. Each player then stacks a row of tiles two tiles high in front of him, the length of the row depending on the number of tiles in use:.

Depending on the variation, two or three dice are usually used to decide what part of the wall to start dealing from.

They are six-sided dice, traditionally but not necessarily Chinese dice with red one and four pips. The dealer marker is a round or square object that the dealer places to the side to remind players who the dealer is.

The wind marker may be used which indicates the current prevailing wind. In some cases the dealer marker and the wind marker are represented by one large marker, usually a small wheel where one can swivel the outer circle to indicate the prevailing wind which the dealer holds onto , a cube with the four winds placed onto four of the sides which can be placed in a hollow square the dealer holds onto it , or a cylinder locked into frame which can be rolled to expose the wind on the top.

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A sweet-tooth version of the classic Mahjong game. A mysterious twist on the original Mahjong Dimensions game. Mahjong rules are easy — match any two tiles that are free and have the same symbol.

A tile is considered free and clickable only if it is uncovered and unblocked on its left and right sides. Because mahjong is a race against the clock, if you want to be a true expert you need to match the tiles quickly!

Mahjong is an ancient game designed to test your mind, seeing how well you can concentrate under pressure.

Spaces in answers are ignored. Answer Pattern. Advanced Crossword Anagrams. Enter letters or a clue and click 'Find Anagrams' to find anagrams.

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Play continues this way until one player has a legal winning hand and calls out "Mahjong" while revealing their hand.

During play, each player's hand should always be 13 tiles meaning in each turn a tile must be picked up and another discarded.

The count of 13 tiles do not include any Bonus tiles Flowers and Seasons , which are set to the side, nor does it include the fourth added piece of a Kong.

If a player is seen to have fewer or more than 13 tiles in their hand outside of their turn they are penalised. A winning hand consists of 14 tiles.

Since players always have 13 tiles in their hand during play, they must win by either drawing a piece from the wall that completes a tile hand "winning from the wall" or claiming a discard from another player which completes a tile hand "winning by discard".

The winning hand is made of four melds a specific pattern of three pieces and the eyes a pair of identical pieces. The exceptions to this rule are the special hands listed below.

Most players play with a table minimum, meaning a winning hand must score a minimum number of points which can be seen in the scoring section.

In Hong Kong Mahjong the most common point set is three but can be higher or lower depending on house rules. Melds are groups of tiles within the player's hand, consisting of either a Pong three identical tiles , a Kong four identical tiles , a Chow three Simple tiles all of the same suit, in numerical sequence , or Eyes two identical tiles needed in a winning hand.

Melds may be formed by drawing a tile from the wall, or by seizing another player's discard. There are rules governing which player has priority for a discard, and whether the meld should be exposed displayed to all players or remain concealed, depending on the manner in which the meld is formed.

You may form a Pong with any Simple or Honors tile. Bonus tiles Flowers or Seasons cannot be used to form a Pong because they are set aside and there are not three identical bonus tiles in the set.

The tiles must be identical you cannot mix suits. A Pong may either be concealed formed by drawing tiles or exposed formed by seizing another player's discard.

Consider a Kong the same as a Pong with an additional tile to make a complete set of four. There are three ways to form a Kong.

Whenever a Kong is formed, that player must draw an extra tile from the end of the wall and then discard a tile.

The fourth piece of a Kong is not considered as one of the 13 tiles a player must always have in their hand. Kongs are worth collecting to score more points and deprive opponents of the opportunity to obtain specific tiles.

The meld must be in absolute numerical sequence and all in the same suit. Players cannot skip numbers or meld from the 8 or 9 to 1 or 2.

Honors tiles cannot be used to make Chows because they have no numerical value, and Bonus tiles Flowers and Seasons also cannot be used to make a Chow.

A player can steal a discard to form a Chow only from the player whose turn was immediately before theirs; however, a player forming a Chow from a seized piece has the lowest priority for that tile.

Any other player who needs that tile to make a Pong, make a Kong, or to win may seize that piece instead. Like the Pong, the Chow is either concealed formed by drawing tiles or exposed formed by seizing the prior player's discard.

Whenever a player draws a flower or season, it is announced and then placed to the side it is not considered a part of the tile hand, but in the event that player wins, he may earn bonus points for them and the last tile of the wall is drawn as a replacement tile so that the player has the 14 pieces needed before their discard.

This may happen successively in a player's turn. When a player discards a tile, other players may steal the tile to complete a meld.

Stealing tiles has both advantages quickly forming a winning hand and scoring extra points and disadvantages being forced to reveal part of one's hand to other players and not being able to change the meld once declared.

When a meld Pong , Kong, or Chow is declared through a discard, the player must state the type of meld to be declared and expose the meld by placing the three or four tiles face up.

The player must then discard a tile, and play continues to the right. If the player who melds a discard is not directly after the discarder in order of play , one or two players will essentially miss their turn as play continues anti-clockwise from the player who declared the meld.

If multiple players call for a discarded tile, priority for the discard depends on the declared action of the player stealing the discard.

The act of winning a hand interrupts play to assess the validity of the hand won. Upon confirmation, the player is awarded the hand's value per the specific game's rule.

If at any point in the game a player can use another player's discard to complete a legal hand and with the agreed minimum points , they declare a win and reveal their winning hand.

This ends the hand, and scoring commences. If more than one player can use a discard to win the hand, multiple ways can handle the situation based on agreed table rules: Either the players count the points they would win with the discard and the winner is the one with the higher score, the winner is simply the player closest to the discarder in order of turn, or multiple players may be granted the win simultaneously.

Alternatively, a player may also win by drawing a tile that completes a legal hand. This is called "winning from the wall".

In Hong Kong mahjong, winning from the wall doubles the number of base points each loser must pay. Technically, the declaration for winning a hand may be done at anytime.

However, the player must have a complete and legal hand. Otherwise, the win declaration is penalized.

The penalty depends on table rules. The player may forfeit points to the other players. Another potential penalty is the player who called out the false mahjong must play the rest of the hand with their tiles face up on the table so other players can see them open hand.

Some methods apply the penalty at the end of the entire game. Again, the table rules dictate the enforcement of the penalty. A rarely occurring and high-scoring feature of Hong Kong Mahjong is a move called robbing the Kong.

If a player declares a Kong either by melding it or adding a fourth piece to a Pong to form a Kong or declaring a concealed Kong but another player can use that piece to complete a hand, the completing player takes priority to go Mahjong win the hand and may steal that piece from the player who intended to declare the Kong.

Below are two examples of winning hands. A winning hand must consist of four melds Pongs, Kongs, or Chows and a pair eyes and must also score the agreed table minimum.

Hand formed with four Pongs and the eyes pair of East wind. Only bamboo is used no other simples , scoring extra points clean hand.

A high-scoring hand formed using only circles, known as a pure hand. Hand is made of Chows, Pongs and the eyes of circles. Most players include table variations in their games, of which some non-standard are included.

The hands of seven different pairs and 13 orphans are examples which do not have four melds and the eyes. They are described in more detail below.

If the dealer wins the hand, he will remain the dealer and an extra hand is played in addition to the minimum 16 hands in a match.

An extra hand is also played if there is no winner by the time all the tiles in the wall have been drawn. When there is no winner it is known as a "goulash hand".

Depending on table rules, the winner of the next game may take an agreed number of points from each player, carrying over the points from the non-winning hand to the winning one.

If there are two or three goulash hands in a row then the winner would collect a considerable number of points from each player on top of their scoring hand.

Because extra hands may be played every time a dealer wins or if there is a goulash hand, a match of 16 hands can easily become a match of 20 or even much more.

As table rules add a large amount of flexibility for players, they can choose to disregard the rule of extra hands and pass on the dealership regardless of who wins or if it results in a goulash hand.

This puts a maximum estimated limit on the game duration and provides some amount of predictability. Players may agree on table rules if the pace of the game is brisk or leisurely.

For brisk games players may agree that a couple seconds after a discard are allowed for a "window of opportunity" before the next player picks up from the wall.

Usually it is agreed once the next player has waited the duration of the "window of opportunity" and draws a tile from the wall, the previous discard is lost and cannot be claimed.

Old Hong Kong scoring is relatively simple. There is only one winner or if there is a draw the hand is replayed. The winner must have a legal hand that meets the minimum faan points agreed to in advance not including any bonus points.

Only the winner scores, the other players pay the winner various sums. After each hand ends, the winner counts all of his or her faan points.

A concealed meld is one that contains no tiles stolen from another players discard. A concealed hand is one made up of only concealed melds. Many variations distinguish between a concealed hand winning from the wall and a semi concealed hand the last tile is a stolen discard.

In most mahjong variations having a concealed hand can be valuable in scoring. Concealed hands only the case with a few limit hands or half-limit hands thirteen orphans, heavenly gates, four concealed pongs as well as a complete hand seven pairs and over several melds three concealed pongs.

A winning hand must include an agreed minimum amount of faan value often 3. Some examples of scoring include:.

The losers pay the winning player points based on several criteria and depending on whether the game is for fun or for money. How points are reckoned is agreed by players beforehand.

For example, they can keep a tally, exchange chips or pay one another with money. The faan value of a hand is converted into base points which are then used to calculate the points the losers pay the winner.

The table is progressive, doubling the number of base points when reaching a certain faan point target. This table is based on play where 3 faan is the minimum needed in order to win with a legal hand.

If a player has 3 faan then his hand is worth one base point. A winning hand with 9 faan is worth four base points. Losing players must give the winning player the value of these base points.

The following special cases result in doubled base points:. If two of these criteria apply to any player, he must double and then redouble the points owed to the winner.

Hong Kong Mahjong is essentially a payment system of doubling and redoubling where winning from the wall adds great value to the final payment and where the dealer is highly rewarded or penalised if they win or lose.

In Hong Kong Mahjong there are a series of "limit hands". These are exceptional hands, difficult to obtain and are very valuable in point scoring.

As many table rules put a limit on the number of points a winners hand can score, full limit hands score that maximum. Table rules dictate if these rare and special hands are allowed, which ones, and the limit for scoring.

A common scoring limit is 64 points, which is the highest base points doubled twice. A winner receives the scoring limit from each player without any doubling.

Some limit hands by necessity must be completely concealed not discards used or semi-concealed the only discard used is the one needed to go mahjong.

This includes the 13 orphans, 4 concealed pongs, heavenly hand and earthly hand. It is usually expected that the heavenly gates hand be concealed or semi-concealed.

As for the dragon limit hands and the great winds, table rules dictate if the hand must be concealed or not. Some table rules claim that a semi-concealed hand winning from a discard scores a half-limit.

Some groups also play with the "great Flowers" rule. If a player picks up all four Flowers and all four Seasons during their hand, they instantly win the hand and receive the maximum points from all of the players.

This is exceptionally rare. Variations may have far more complicated scoring systems, add or remove tiles, and include far more scoring elements and limit hands.

In many places, players often observe one version and are either unaware of other variations or claim that different versions are incorrect.

In mainland China alone, there are over thirty variants. Three-player Mahjong or 3- ka is a simplified three-person Mahjong that involves hands of 13 tiles with a total of 84 tiles on the table and may use jokers depending on the variation.

Any rule set can be adapted for three players; however, this is far more common and accepted in Japan, Korea, Malaysia and the Philippines.

It usually eliminates one suit entirely, or tiles 2—8 in one suit leaving only the terminals. It needs fewer people to start a game and the turnaround time of a game is short—hence, it is considered a fast game.

In some versions there is a jackpot for winning in which whoever accumulates a point of 10 is considered to hit the jackpot or whoever scores three hidden hands first.

The Malaysian and Korean versions drop one wind and may include a seat dragon. Mahjong tables are square and small enough to be within arm's length of all equipment.

The edges are raised to prevent tiles from sliding off and the surface is covered in felt to limit wear on the tiles.

Automatic dealing tables, often used for high stakes playing and tournaments, are able to shuffle tiles, build walls, and randomize dice.

It is an elaborate device built into a table which uses two alternating sets of tiles. It prepares one wall while the players play one hand.

After the hand is finished the tiles are dropped into the table and a new wall raises upwards. In theory the table should avoid cheating by stacking the deck and or using loaded dice.

There are variations that feature specific use of tiles. Some three-player versions remove the North Wind and one Chinese provincial version has no Honors.

Korean Mahjong removes the bamboo suit or at least its numbers 2—8 so that terminals can be used. Japanese Mahjong rarely uses Flowers or Seasons.

Some mahjong variants accept wildcard tiles. The wildcard tiles are decided at the beginning of the game by choosing one random tile. The wild card could be the immediately following tile on the wall, after distributing tiles to all players, or it could also be separately decided by a dice throw.

Wildcard tiles can't be discarded and can only replace tiles in Chows. Wildcard tiles cannot replace tiles in Pongs and Kongs.

For example, if a character 4 is chosen, then character 4 and the next sequential tile, character 5, can be used as wild cards in this round.

When the wildcard indicator is chosen and exposed, only 3 tiles remain of the same denomination, so the next tile in the suit will also be used as a wildcard, adding to 7 wildcard tiles for 4 players.

Also, if a tile numbered 9 is the indicator, the suits circle back to 1, after 9. Thus, the number 9 and 1 are wild cards.

A feature of several variations of Mahjong, most notably in American mahjong, is the notion of some number of Joker tiles.

They may be used as a wild card: a substitute for any tile in a hand, or, in some variations, only tiles in melds. Another variation is that the Joker tile may not be used for melding.

Depending on the variation, a player may replace a Joker tile that is part of an exposed meld belonging to any player with the tile it represents. Rules governing discarding Joker tiles also exist; some variations permit the Joker tile to take on the identity of any tile, and others only permit the Joker tile to take on the identity of the previously discarded tile or the absence of a tile, if it is the first discard.

Joker tiles may or may not affect scoring, depending on the variation. Some special hands may require the use of Joker tiles for example, to represent a "fifth tile" of a certain suited or honor tile.

Japanese rule sets discourage the use of Flowers and Seasons. In Singapore and Malaysia an extra set of bonus tiles of four animals are used.

The rule set includes a unique function in that players who get two specific animals get a one-time immediate payout from all players.

In Taiwanese Mahjong, getting all eight Flowers and Seasons constitutes an automatic win of the hand and specific payout from all players. Four of the flower tiles represent the four noble plants of Confucian reckoning:.

These animal tiles are used in Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and local variations. They represent the cat , mouse , rooster and centipede.

Like flower tiles, they also function as bonus tiles. However, as they have no corresponding seat position, any player who draws one of these gets a bonus point.

All tiles are placed face down and shuffled. Each player then stacks a row of tiles two tiles high in front of him, the length of the row depending on the number of tiles in use:.

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